Phage Therapy

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Phage Therapy currently uses virulent phages with no adverse immunomodulatory effects:

Lytic Lysogenic
Harmless Potentially Pathogenic.

Phage therapy is the method by which bacteriophages (viruses which infect bacteria) are used to treat bacterial infections or reduce bacterial populations. Phage therapy has gained recent attention in the United States as an alternative to standard antibiotic therapy. It has been in practice in countries like Russia, Georgia, and Poland for just over 100 years, but due to the recent clinical attention of antibiotic resistance, Western countries have slowly been integrating phage therapy into their medicinal arsenal. Currently, in the United States, phages are used for treating bacterial infections only when patients have multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections, or when infections are life-threatening, or when patients are immunocompromised and antibiotic therapy is not a viable option. In the United States, phages are most commonly administered intravenously (IV) or intratracheally through Emergency Investigational New Drug (eIND) stipulations, regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Clinical trials are underway for IV phage therapy for patients with MDR ventricular assist device (VAD) infections. These clinical trials will be performed at the Center for Innovative Phage Applications and Therapeutics (IPATH) at UC San Diego, in association with AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation, Inc.

BioTech Phage Therapy in Humans[edit]

Ampliphi and Contrafect are the only publicly traded:
Company Product Vector Bacteria Illness Method Phase
Ampliphi Biosciences AB-SA01 Phage Staphylococcus aureus Muli-Drug Resistant Intravenous Phase 1.5
Ampliphi Biosciences AB-PA01 Phage Pseudomonas aeruginosa Intravenous Phase 1.5
Avid Biotics Pyocin endolysin E Coli Preclinical
Avid Biotics Avidocin endolysin C. difficile Preclinical
Avid Biotics Pyocin endolysin Pseudomonas aeruginosa Preclinical
Avid Biotics Purocin endolysin Samonella Preclinical
Avid Biotics Purocin endolysin Listeria Preclinical
Avid Biotics Purocin endolysin E. coli Preclinical
c3jtherapeutics C3J-EP-02 Phage Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ContraFect CF-301 Endolysin Staphylococcus aureus Intravenous Phase 2
ContraFect CF-303 Endolysin S. pneumoniae Inhaled Phase 3
ContraFect CF-304 Endolysin S. faecalis and faecium Preclinical
ContraFect CF-305 Endolysin E. agalactiae Preclinical
ContraFect CF-306 Endolysin S. anthracis Preclinical
Gangagen‎‎ P128 Ectolysin Staphylococcus aureus
Intralytix ShigActive Phage Shigella Injestion Phase 1 complete
Intralytix Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
venous leg ulcer Phase 1 completed 2009
No better than compression therapy
Intralytix/Ferring Pharma Phage adhesive invasive
E. coli (AIEC)
infl. bowel diseases (IBD) Injestion Phase 1
Intron Biotechnology phages form S. aureus

Micreos Staphefekt / Gladskin endolysin Staphylococcus aureus Infection Continuum Topical
Approved in Europe
under “medical device”
No Prescription
Micreos Staphefekt / Gladskin endolysin Staphylococcus aureus Eczema Topical
Approved in Europe
under “medical device”
No Prescription
Micreos Staphefekt / Gladskin endolysin Staphylococcus aureus Rosacea Topical
Approved in Europe
under “medical device”
No Prescription
Micreos Staphefekt / Gladskin endolysin Staphylococcus aureus Acne Topical
Approved in Europe
under “medical device”
No Prescription
Micreos Staphefekt / Gladskin endolysin Staphylococcus aureus Folliculitis/Furunculosis Topical
Approved in Europe
under “medical device”
No Prescription
Phage Lux NJ-01-SS Bacteriophage Burn Care Topical Preclinical
Phage Lux NJ-03-BM Bacteriophage H. Pylori Ulcer Injested Preclinical
Phage Lux NJ-06-FC Bacteriophage Acne Topical Preclinical
Phage Lux WH-01-SZ Bacteriophage Eczema Topical Preclinical
Phage Lux CF-307 B. Bacteriophage Implant Related Preclinical
Pherecydes Pharma Phago Burn Pseudomonas aeruginosa Topical I/II
Pherecydes Pharma PP021 Phage E. Coli/food poisining injested  ?
Pherecydes Pharma PP2351 Phage Staphylococcus Topical  ?
Technophage TP-102 Phage H.Pylori Ulcers Injested Phase 1

Demonstrating effectiveness in a clinical trial is tricky because the phages are specific to strains of bacteria that are only a fraction of the disease category (samonella is an exception). Enrollment in a clinical trial typically does not involve testing the bacteria for specificity, but that seems to be necessary in Phage therapies. Defining the bacteria that are treatable beyond "it works" would require huge genetic/proteomic investigations that are prohibitively expensive. Amplififi bio seems to be doing specificity tests before admitting patient to their clinical trails, which is the only way to demonstrate effectiveness. An example of specificity breaking a clinical trial is that of Intralytics Venous leg ulcer in the above table. It would have been prudent to go after a narrow subspecies of one of the three bacteria it was targeting.

Inspiration for this Table: this table

Note that "Topical" usually means there are multiple uses for the drug: Micreos SA 100 treats: Eczema Rosacea Acne Folliculitis/Furunculosis MRSA. Some companies give different names to each of the applications and so "appear" to have more products in this table. It would be more fair to create one row for each appplication of a drug to level the playing field. If someone wants to do that I don't mind.

Table editor that will take the header making the sort by columns not work-please recode this feature back in.

Non-Biotech Phage Therapy[edit]

The vast majority of clinical trials involving the use of bacteriophages have been conducted in Eastern Europe, especially in Poland, Georgia, and Russia. These are not considered Biotech here.

Company Product Vector Bacteria Disease Method Where
Eliava Institute Phage Staphylococcus aureus Intravenous
Eliava Institute Phage Pseudomonas aeruginosa Intravenous
Collaboration Phage Klebsiella pneumoniae Intravenous Taiwan
Phage Acinetobacter baumannii Intravenous
proteonpharma Phage mastitis method
AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation (San Diego, CA)
Naval Medical Research Center
(Fort Detrick, Maryland).
AB-PA01 (4 phages)
AB-PA01m1 (5 phages)
PA Navy Phage Cocktail 1 (3 phages)
PA Navy Phage Cocktail 2 (2 phages)
lung transplant recipient (LTR)
with recurrent multi-drug resistant (MDR)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) pneumonia
Complete Recovery
10.1371/journal.pntd.0002183 Mycobacterium ulcerans Buruli Ulcer (BU) Mice/Portugal/Brazil
Chinese Academics phage liposome
coating solution
tuberculosis Preclinical/mice
Chinese Academics papill phage tuberculosis
oral ulcers
Seoul National University MPK1 and MPK6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa MDR mice/mosquitos
T7 like-KPO1K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055 prophylactically mice

There are more than 150 primary immune deficiency disorders (PID). These individuals have improperly functioning immune systems and do not respond to traditional antibiotics. Without Immunoglobulin (IVIG), they are exposed to frequent and often serious infections. There is potential for Phages to replace IVIG therapies which are very expensive.

The following paper should contain many disease to add to the above table: Clinical Aspects of Phage Therapy July 2012Advances in Virus Research 83:73-121 DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394438-2.00003-7 The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010.

Phage Therapy in Agriculture[edit]

Company Product Vector Bacteria Disease Method Where
Intralytix, Inc. Phage Listeria monocytogenes RTE meat and poultry FDA approved 2002
Institute for Animal Health,
Compton Laboratory
Phage R E. coli chicken and bovine
sepsis and meningitis
K1 capsular antigen

Abedon ST. Kinetics of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria. Foodborne Pathog Dis . 2009; 6 : 807-815.

Phage Prebiotic Supplements[edit]

Company Supplement Target Bacteriophages Other Ingredients
Nutrivee Advanced Prebiotic Works Within Hours Phage Prebiotic Supports Beneficial Bacteria $20 on Amazon Supplement
MRM Probiotic Booster with Preforpro Phage Prebiotic LH01 - myoviridae
LL5 - Siphoviridae
T40 - Myoviridae
LL12 0 Myoviridae
Deerland Enzymes Phage Prebiotic PreforPro No mention of Phages
only "healthy" bacteria
Sell through MRM
and others
specialty formulator and
contract manufacturer
of dietary supplements
Arthur Andrew Floraphate E. Coli from Floraphage ?? cellulose (vegetarian capsules), non-GMO rice dextrin.
Dr Tobias Deep Immune

Optimum Probiotics

E. Coli from PreforPro
LH01 - myoviridae
LL5 - Siphoviridae
T40 - Myoviridae
LL12 0 Myoviridae
Bacillus coagulans
Bacillus subtilis DE111
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Bifidobacterium lactis
Designs for Health PrePhage E. Coli Four types 5 bacteria/probiotics
Life Extension Florassist GI E. Coli TetraPhage Blend Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14, Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04, L. paracasei Lpc-37, L. rhamnosus Lr-32, B. bifidum/lactis Bb-02, B. longum Bl-05.
Nutrivee Advanced Prebiotic E. Coli "from PreforPro LH01 Myoviridae, LL5 Siphoviridae, T4D Myoviridae, LL12 Myoviridae. rice dextrin, vegetable capsule
Probiotic America Perfect Flora E. Coli LH01 Myoviridae, LL5 Siphoviridae, T4D Myoviridae, LL12 Myoviridae. rice dextrin, vegetable cellulose
RealBiotic RealBiotic E. Coli PreforPro):
LH01 - myoviridae
LL5 - Siphoviridae
T40 - Myoviridae
LL12 0 Myoviridae
Bacillus coagulans
Bacillus subtilis DE111
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Bifidobacterium lactis.
Seeking Health ProBiota BactriX E. Coli PrePhage): T4D Myoviridae, LH01 Myoviridae, LL5 Siphoviridae, LL12 Myoviridae. Bifidobacterium bifidum
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Bifidobacterium longum
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus casei
Streptococcus thermophiles.
Systemic Formulas Eco-Virome Lq E. Coli Myoviridae (unknown type), Podoviridae (unknown type). The company told me it's "designed to target all strains of E-coli." NaCl, MgSO4, dipotassium phosphate
Systemic Formulas Sal-Virome Sl Samonella Siphoviridae (unknown type)
Myoviridae (unknown type)
NaCl, MgSO4, dipotassium phosphate. Lytic phages are completely safe, considered GRAS (through review of published scientific literature, and based on their common use in food), with some having been approved by the FDA for use in foods as a means to control foodborne pathogens

People Cured with Phage Therapy[edit]

hen her husband was dying of a drug-resistant infection, Steffanie Strathdee had a last-ditch idea After word got out that Strathdee and her husband’s doctors had managed to save his life with a bacteriophage — literally, a bacteria-eater — her inbox filled with pleas for a repeat performance. They came from all over: the U.S., the U.K., Australia, India, China, Albania. In almost every case, there was someone dying because of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Phage Companies[edit]

Phage Therapy Companies

Large Russian online pharmacy which is geared up for sending items internationally to any part of the world, and which stocks a range of ready-made phage therapy products costing around $30 per box (each box contains 2 x 40 ml), plus $42 for international shipping. These phage therapy products can be taken orally or rectally.'s list of phage therapy products includes the following phage treatments:

Staphylococcus bacteriaKlebsiella pneumoniaProteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgarisPseudomonasWide-spectrum phage therapy product that treats: Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Enterococcus species, Staphilococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa — manufacturer info and instructions for use here.

If you want to search for more phage therapy products on the website, just enter the Russian word бактериофаг (= bacteriophage) into the search box on

In the case of the Staphylococcus phage product, each box contains 10 x 20 ml, and the instructions for adults say to take 20 to 30 ml orally one to three times a day, for 7 to 14 days. So if you took the lowest dose for 10 days, then just one box will suffice.

The pharmacy also stock some phage treatments.

Phage Institutes[edit]

The only Insitute for Phage Therapy in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005.

The only Institute for Phage Therapy in the United States is: UCSD Medical School Phage Division Center for Innovative Phage Applications and Therapeutics (IPATH)

Phagebiotics Research Foundation

Phage Biotics Research Foundation (non-profit)

Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw Polish therapeutic phage research, production and treatment. Director Andre Gorski and Beata Weber-Dubrowska,

International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms

Phage Therapy Center

Pheonix Rising Is a California subsidiary of Georgian Phage International.

Georgia Georgia

Eliava Institute of Tbilisi, Georgia

Diagnos 90

Phage People[edit]

(Betty) Kutter 50 years of phage research

Burt Guttman

Revaz Adamia, who worked full time as the head of a lab at the Eliava Institute for Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology

lnga Georgadze, the head of Diagnos 90,

Zemphira Alavidze

surgeon Guram Gvasalia at Tbilisi central hospital, who has lots of experience with phage therapy.

Andrew Brabban

Stephen T Abedon

intralytics run by sandro

Phage Meetings[edit]

20th Biennial Evergreen International Phage Meeting

Most meetings are posted on the:

Phage Universities[edit]

SEA-PHAGES is a nationwide program that involves more than 100 universities and colleges across the country with Columbia State being one out of only 12 community college participants in the country. Approximately 5,000 students participate in the program each year. SEA-PHAGES course will be taught by Dr. Elvira Eivazova, Columbia State assistant professor of biology, and [Graham Hatfull]. Eivazova has been an advocate for implementing collaborative undergraduate research at Columbia State. Source The course is divided into two consecutive components. The first is a phage discovery “wet lab” component, during which students isolate bacteriophages (viruses that are specific to bacterial hosts) from local environmental samples and extract DNA for further analysis. In the second semester, students will employ bioinformatics methods to annotate their phage’s genome sequences. After quality control checks, the students’ annotated sequences will be submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information database.

Naturopathic College in Seattle.

The National College of Naturopathic Medicine, in Portland, Oregon, has a master’s degree in research in complementary medicine.

Phage Therapy Game Plan